Which of the following statements is NOT true ? 1

(a) In Belgium, leaders realised that unity of the country is possible only by sharing power

(b) In Sri Lanka, the majority community wants to force domination over others

(c) In Sri Lanka, the demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by Tamils has been granted

(d) Division of Belgium along linguistic lines was averted due top power sharing

Answer: (c)

Which one of the following is an example of horizontal sharing of power ? 1

(a) Power sharing between different states.

(b) Power sharing between different organs of the government.

(c) Power sharing between different levels of the government.

(d) Power sharing between different political parties.

Answer: (b)

As per language policy of Indian Government, which one of the following statements is true regarding the status of Hindi language ?

(a) Only Hindi is our National language.

(b) Hindi is the official language.

(c) Hindi has been accepted as the mother tongue of all the Indians.

(d) None of the above.

Answer: (b)

Which of the following divisions is unique to India ? 1

(a) Gender division

(b) Caste division

(c) Economic division

(d) Religious division

Answer: (b)

Why is power sharing necessary in democracy ? Explain. 3

Answer: (i) It helps to reduce the conflicts between the social groups.

(ii) for political stability

(iii) Accommodating all sections of the people

(iv) very spirit of democracy.

(v) citizens participation

Taking the example of Carlos, Smith and Norman explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people. 3

Answer: Carlos and Smith were both African-American and thus were similar. But they were different from Norman who was white. They were also similar in the fact that they were all athletes who stood against racial discrimination.

How do social divisions affect politics ? Give two examples. 3

Answer: In democracy there are more than one party to fight elections–voters have an option. -There is a cut throat competition among the political parties to win the elections and form the govt. - Political Parties try to influence the voters- -Social divisions exist in Society - Political Parties try to exploit these differences for their own benefit - win the votes of a particular group - dangerous - sow seeds of difference and conflicts in society - mistrust and disunity in people.

How are religious differences expressed in politics ? 3

Answer: (a) Commonly expressed in everyday beliefs.

(b) A communal mind seeks political dominance

(c) Sometimes takes its ugliest form of communal violence

Describe any four features of federalism. 1+2+1=4

Answer: (i) Two or more levels of government.

(ii) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens but each tier has its own jurisdiction (iii) Jurisdiction of each level is described in constitution.

(iv) Fundamental provision of the constitution can not be changed unilaterally by any one level of govt;

(v) courts have the power to interpret the constitution.

(vi) sources of revenue of each level is clearly specified in the constitution.

(vii) federal system has the duel objective to safeguard the unity of the country, while at the

Choose the correct option : Power sharing is desirable because it helps : 1

(a) To increase pressure on government.

(b) To reduce possibilities of conflicts

(c) To generate awareness among people

(d) To increase percentage of voters

Answer: (b)

Which major social group constituted the largest share in population of Sri Lanka? 1

(a) Sinhalas (b) Shri Lankan Tamils (c) Indian Tamils (d) Muslims

Answer: (a)

In local self government institutions at least one third of all positions are reserved for : 1

(a) men (b) women (c) children (d) scheduled tribes

Answer: (b)

“Feminist movements” are aimed at :- 1

(a) Liberty (b) Equality (c) Participation (d) Power

Answer: (b)

How have Belgium and Sri Lanka dealt with the question of Power Sharing differently ? 3

Answer: Both Belgium and SriLanka claim to be democratic countries - Both faced the problem of ethnicity - dealt with question of power sharing differently. -In Belgium - leaders realised that unity of country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions - resulted in mutual acceptable arrangements for sharing power. -Sri Lanka - shows us that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others and refuses to share power - it can undermine the unity of the country. Belgium solved its ethnic problem - Sri Lanka still reeling under shadow of civil war.

“We have different identities in different contexts”. Support the statement with three facts. 3

Answer: (i) It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religion to feel they do not belong to the same community because their caste or sect is different.

(ii) It is also possible for people from different religions have the same economic status and feel close to each other.

(iii) Rich and poor persons from same family often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are different.

(iv) We can have more than one identify and belong to more than one social group.

How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial ? 3

Answer: (i) The various disadvantaged groups express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

(ii) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often result in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.

(iii) Fight against injustice often takes a democratic path voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.

What forms does communalism take in politics? 3

Answer: a. Commonly expressed in everyday beliefs

b. A communal mind seeks political dominance

c. Sometimes takes its ugliest form of communal violence

Analyse the advantages of decentralisation. 4

Answer: (i) Large number of problems and issues are best settled at the local level.

(ii) It helps to directly participate in decision making

(iii) Money a things are managed efficiently.

(iv) It is important to realise the principle of democracy.

3 and 4 marks questions are given as indicators, they require more expalanation.


  1. sir, please help me ques. 4. please let me know the difference between caste and religion.

    1. Religions are particular belief of a community like Hinduism, Muslim, Sikhism and christanity. All these are religions, in which they have their religious beliefs (God, Waheguru, Allah, etc.), rituals (Pooja, Offerings, etc.) and monuments (Temples, Mosques, etc).

      And Castes are vertical division of people by society like Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra etc. They form a top down order where people of high caste like Kshatriya (who fight and rule i.e. Kings) enjoy special favours as they can marry more than once, they can have slaves, etc. And people of low caste like Shudra (who are daily wager) have fewer favours like they can drink water only from their alloted wells, marry only women from their caste, serve higher castes, can't have education like Brahmins, can not attend public festivals of upper castes, etc., untouchables is are result of it. Even women are also having separate caste, who serve men, Satti Ritual is a result of it.

    2. thanks sir! and also i have one more doubt in third question that we say Hindi is the national language of India as well.